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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 43-48

Blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: A 2-year study from India

1 Department of Clinical Microbiology, BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Bone Marrow Transplant, BLK Super Speciality Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Purabi Barman
Department of Clinical Microbiology, BLK Super Speciality Hospital, Pusa Road, New Delhi - 110 005
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/oji.oji_7_20

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Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are particularly prone to bloodstream infections (BSIs). This has been attributed to neutropenia and immune-suppression. Regardless of the improvements made in the management perspective, infection still plays a major role in morbidity and mortality in these patients. It has been related to the rise of multidrug-resistant organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of BSIs and the burden of antibiotic resistance in HSCT patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted this retrospective study for 2 years in 438 transplant events among 429 HSCT recipients who developed febrile neutropenia. Paired blood culture samples were collected on the onset of fever. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriage rate was also determined in 127 patients. Results: BSIs were detected in 131 transplant events, which were classified as mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed BSIs in 61, central line-associated, and other primary BSIs among 35 each. A diverse variety of 145 isolated organisms included Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with 4 Candida species. All the Gram-negative isolates were susceptible to colistin, while 68.83% of CRE was detected. CRE carriage rate was observed in 37.80% of 127 individuals. Vancomycin resistance was noticed in 40% Enterococcus species. The overall mortality rate was 20.05%. Conclusions: Screening for CRE carriage in these patients could help in timely initiation of empirical colistin therapy. However, local epidemiology plays an important role in deciding the empirical antibiotic therapy.

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